17 Poor Arthur Conolly 1
Nobody wanted to give initiative, territories in regions of interests, markets, increasing influence, access to the sea and ports, acquisitions of strategic straits. As well as controlling the transit trade flows of another empire.
That is, the poles of power were not interested in other empires or regional powers expanding their overseas or marginal colonies.
Conquered territories, new colonies sometimes passed from hand to hand.
New technologies were deciding who to break the ladies and who would be left behind.
Industrial empire, defeated the feudal powers.
At the end of the 19th century, most of the colonies were already divided between major players...
(Presentation of historical material in the free interpretation of facts and some subjective hypotheses of the development of events).
The arrogance of one, the audacity of the other, led to a very interesting but sad story.
Skillful operative, solidity of the doctrine, intelligent guy, charismatic handsome, easily disentangled from the most complex, dangerous and intricate adventures. His name was Arthur Conolly.
Colonel Charles Stoddart has established himself as a staunch and brave reconnaissance, and he is brash and arrogant. Who thought of sending it on an important mission to the emirate? Where you need tact, compliance with the rules, traditions and your communication ritual ?! Apparently the colonel had enemies in the imperial intelligence itself. Sir John MacNaille probably someone recommended him, but who? It is left overs once again. The manifestation of disrespect in the East, never in vain, does not pass ... In the East, they love the observance of rituals, status and its conformity, equal relations, the position of the younger brother never leads to a good result, especially if it requires weaker positions.
The colonel, the colonel, apparently did not know this, relied on the greatness of his empire, and he did not receive confirmation of this. Who same goes without all the necessary papers, but still behaves defiantly?
All this against the background of aggravated interests of two great empires.
The thirties and forties of the nineteenth century, the period of the application of the two empires on the territory of the Central Asian khanates.
Since ancient times, Central Asia has attracted large empires because of its unique geopolitical position. From it opened a great access to large trade and transit centers, regions of producers of special goods. Persia, India, Afghanistan, China and through them access to maritime trade and new regions of Africa and the countries of Oceania.
Control over trade routes gave great power to the hands, allowed some regions of the world to flourish, and others to decline. Skipping the goods or not, it was a good argument in resolving political disputes, and it is also economically beneficial. Customs duties for goods substantially replenished the budget of empires. Not to mention the ability to control the transfer of technology, knowledge, etc.
At that time, in some parts of the Western world, in particular of England, the USA and France, an economic crisis began. At the same time in the world began the cotton boom.
In the heads of politicians, every possible doctrine of interest was rife in the region. The so-called buffer zones, sanitary cordons, which could isolate the borders from potentially dangerous powers.
Imperial industrialists, merchants needed new markets for their products. But the merchants were concerned that intermediaries received 300-400 or even 500 percent of the profits from their goods, being engaged only in resale. To trade by changing their rubles or pounds to local tengs or rupees, they received less profit.
Numerous expeditions, information from merchants, diplomatic (that is, reconnaissance) missions, moreover, reported rich ore deposits - gold and silver. As well as areas with the extraction of precious stones.
There was an idea about monopolizing the world cotton market, and for this we needed territories suitable for growing it.
Many factors merged into a single powerful stream. And the empire began its movement to Central Asia ...
The British wanted to protect their Indian colony from the possible invasion of the Russian Empire. Therefore, they needed a buffer zone. They wanted to put a single ruler in Afghanistan so that it would be easier to reach an agreement and keep the borders closed. The Russian empire, in the interpretation of the British side, was interested in several weak rulers of Afghanistan. Playing on their contradictions, they are manipulated.
The Russian Empire itself wanted to keep the British from the Central Asian khanates, due to the fact that it did not want to lose its buffer zone.
Emissaries of Britain offered to the Central Asian rulers * - to stop the slave trade of Russian subjects. Since this is a potential reason to start conquering the khanates. But their warnings were missed. What is the reason for this? Probably, the tsarist government did not particularly care about the fate of its subjects. Yes, and the Russian Empire at that time was the main trading partner of the Central Asian khanates, so the Khans (Khiva and Kokand) were convinced that this would be an excuse and profitable trade relations would not be spoiled.
Probably, therefore, they did not even buy new weapons, did not attract European instructors for retraining, did not build new fortifications, etc. How did you manage to do this later by the Japanese Empire and thus avoid colonization.
Twenty years later, just one of the reasons for the seizure of the Central Asian khanates and the liberation of slaves served, once and for all, to stop the raids on merchant, imperial caravans. Also to open access to new markets for goods ...
But the fact that their prediction came true, the two British, imperial scouts did not see.
The trade relations established between Russia and Bukharia since ancient times have taken on a particularly wide scale since the second half of the eighteenth century. At that time, the northern empire sent its weapons and even military advisers to distant lands. There were such times.
By the end of one thousand eight hundred and twentieth year, the trade of Bukhara with the Russian Empire occupied the first place. According to Yegor Kazimirovich Meyendorf, one of the participants of the expedition of A.F. Negri to Bukharia.
The trade turnover for the year of Bukhara with the Northern Empire was about 3000 camels, with a normal cargo that lifted the camel 18 pounds, that is 288 kg, (according to Meyendorf E.K. Travel from Orenburg to Bukhara. 1824) we can calculate approximately how many tons of goods were transported in those times .
That is, in the year the turnover of goods with the Russian Empire was approximately - 864 tons, with Kashgar in 201.6 tons, with Persia in 172.8 tons. The cost of transportation of goods to the Northern Empire was from 99 to 108 rubles and to India through Afghanistan from 108 to 126 rubles.
Thus, trade with Russia was economically beneficial both in terms of transportation and in terms of the sale of goods. Bukhara merchants made a profit of 400-500 percent from Russian goods. The following goods were brought from Russia to Bukharia - cloves, sugar, tin, red and blue sandalwood, cloth, leather, wax, honey, iron, copper, steel, gold threads, mirrors, pearls, cast iron boilers, brocade, glass products.
Bukhara traded with Hindu merchants mainly from Northern Indostan (Kashmiri shawls, silk fabrics, thin paper sheets, precious stones and a lot of indigo were brought from India. Russian goods were brought to Persia and Afghanistan, coarse shawls were brought from Persian and Afghanistan, carpets and turquoise.
That is, trade with the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20s of the 19th century occupied one of the leading places in Bukhara. Along with the goods, the Russian influence grew, on the merchants, noble officials in the khanates.
In 1827, Emir Nasr Ulla Bahadur Khan became the chief in Bukhara. According to separate sources of information, Nasrulla, fearing intrigues from the former loyal people of his predecessors, removed them from their posts. Thus weakening the army and control in the emirate. The new emir of Bukharia, Nasrullah maintained friendly relations with the Russian Empire.
Arthur Conolly is an amazing man, an explorer of the East, a tireless traveler, a creative person, a writer and a skilled intelligence officer. He was born in London, on the second of July, eight eight hundred and seven.
Scouts write books and this also happens, though under pseudonyms. Arthur Conolly was such for travel "Han Ali."
The Conolly family was descended from the Irish clan "; Conghalaigh". His cousin was secretary of the political and secret department. That is, it happened, as they say from a good family.
At 12 he was left an orphan; he had five more brothers. Two of whom were also scouts and died in the execution of their missions during the implementation of the "Big Game". But about them somehow little material. Of the Conolly family, Arthur is the most famous.
In English literature, they write about him as a "self-made man" - as a person who made himself.
He began his career as a young cadet with military service in India at the age of 16. Subsequently, the young Arthur served in the Bengal cavalry under the British East India Company with the rank of captain. According to one of the legends, it was Arthur Conolly who coined the term "Big Games", which described the opposition of the British and Russian Empires in Central Asia.
He liked to travel frequently in Asia. At the age of twenty-two, he is already a lieutenant. Arthur used his vacation for research - to study the possibility of a campaign of Russian troops on the Central Asian Khanate. From Moscow he went to the Caucasus, then crossed the Karakum to reach Khiva, but he did not succeed. Nevertheless, in September he was already in Herat (Afghanistan). As a result, he published his book, where he described his journey. It was called "Journey to North India by land from Britain through Russia, Persia and Afghanistan."
Curious during his visit to Moscow and following the territory of the Russian Empire, was the surveillance service assigned to him? Probably yes. But it's hard to say for sure.
In the period from 1813 to 1842, in transboundary countries with the Central Asian khanates, as well as the camp of the game, a number of significant events took place that were also associated with the "Big Game" and were directly related to the fate of Arthur Conolly.
Why did the Emir of Bukhara, Nasrullo, take such a tough and short-sighted decision? Why did he go to the aggravation of the situation, although in the East it is in relation to those who have a roof is not accepted. And even more so if they were representatives of a powerful empire. Since in the East, everyone understands that inadequate actions may be followed by an asymmetrical response ... This is one of the oddities, the sad story of the magnificent Arthur Conolly.
Persia - in 1813 ended one of the clashes with the Russian Empire, begun in 1804. Britain and France were friends with Persia against the Northern Empire. In 1813 (the year of the beginning of the "Big Game"), the Gulustan Peace, unprofitable for Persia, was signed. East Georgia, formerly owned by Persia, as well as part of Azerbaijan, became part of the Russian Empire. Plus in the Caspian to keep the navy.
Then, an attempt to return the territories turned into another defeat of Persia and a new peace treaty of Turkmanchai was concluded, ending the war with the Russian Empire of 1826-1888. In addition to the empire, the territories of Eastern Armenia, plus trade preferences, a large indemnity, withdrew, all these actions strengthened the position of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus. Alexander Sergeevich Griboedov * actively participated in the drafting of the agreement ...
It was rumored that he was in unfriendly relations with Tsar Nicholas 1. Another tragic victim on the altar of the "Big Game". How many were there? Probably no one thought ...
The great empires fought among themselves, but at the same time, they tried to limit the ambitions of the regional empires in their territorial claims. As the saying goes, friendship is friendship and a snuff apart ... Great empires always have their own interests and they are many-sided.
The British East India Company in 1813 deprived it of the rights of a trade monopoly with India. Another oddity, the year of the beginning of the "Big Game" ...
In 1833, the British East India Company completely closed all its agencies and warehouses.
From 1838 to 1842 military clashes between Afghans and the British Empire ...
In 1822, the "Corps of Surveyors" of the Russian Empire was created under the roof of the "Military Topographical Depot" for the centralized conduct of cartographic surveys on the territory of the metropolis.
The Russian Empire in 1813 liberated Germany from Napoleon. At the end of February 1813, the Kalisz Treaty was signed on an offensive and defensive alliance between Russia and Prussia. Including the secret part (that Prussia will receive full compensation for the Polish lands, which were ceded to Russia in the east at the expense of the North Germanic ones). These peace treaties are always in them, there is something not for public voice acting ...
Everything is a strange figure of 1813 ... the time of the beginning of the "Big Game". Maybe just a coincidence, but maybe not.