101 Silk Road miscellaneous information
The main postal road of the Arab Caliphate (from the 9th to the 14th centuries): Baghdad-Hulawan mountain pass-highlands Hamadan-Rey-Nishapur-Merv-Big-An-Small-An-Iron gates-Malguzar-Osh-TerekDawan-Kashgar.
The progress along this road through the border region between the Kingdom of the CAO and China depended on the extremely unstable security of movement there.
Throughout the early era from 4-10 c. the shortest road through Ferghana and the Tarim basin, which is still in the 8th century. AD the Chinese preferred and on which Marco Polo walked, did not like it (probably because of the requisitions of the Tibetans, who owned the region from Altyn to the Tien Shan until the middle of the 9th century AD).
In Ferghana, they did not use Alai passages, but walked through the Atbas or Tabas passage, "with a steep ascent, impassable in the snow," to Barskhan, which lies to the south-west of the lake. Issyk-Kul. There ended the Small-An-China road, which led through a stone arc through the Stone City of Taraz and Birki to Barskhan.
In the Arab-Persian road builders (7-11 centuries), the distance traveled was estimated at 5-6 farces. Consequently, the daily passage was approximately 25-30 km.
In the steppe and desert parts of the region near the Svet Mountains and the Pistachio Mountains, caravanserais were located at a distance of 15 km from each other, and in the mountainous part at a distance of 25-32 km.
In antiquity, on the strategically important main trade routes, strong fortified points were created that performed a number of functions: control of transportation, collection of tax transit duties, etc.
In the period from the 4th century BC until the end of the 16th century A.D. the emergence of a new trading infrastructure:
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• watch fortresses
• post stations
• local bazaars
• regional bazaars
• the emergence of new jobs:
o robbers (there were entire settlements, which is even reflected in principle in some toponymic names like Karakchitau - Rogue Mountain)
o caravan bash (conductors)
o caravan guards
o sale of mounts
o tax fees
o repair work (improvement of roads)
Why did this infrastructure appear ?:
There was a need to sell your product, exchange it for others, expand your territory, there was a need for new resources, water flows, etc.
The consequences of their occurrence?
In the area of the Silk Road, a dense transport network has arisen, both international and regional, local and local in nature. The infrastructure appeared:
• irrigation and agriculture (steppe, mountain-valley, foothill)
• fortresses, etc.
Some crops began to be cultivated, walnut and mulberry plantations appeared, and the smelting of metals and the extraction of minerals began to develop more intensively. The emergence of new retail outlets, the penetration of different cultures, peoples, technologies, the expansion of geographical knowledge of neighboring areas. The emergence of the need to create guides to trade routes and the areas through which they passed. The revival of the economies of countries through which trade routes passed.
The road service area includes:
• Resettlement - economic development or transformation of the economy;
• Resettlement - a territorial organization of the population, a network of settlements (opr. Ter. Resettlement according to the drawing);
• Resettlement - as a technical infrastructure;
• Settlements - production and living centers
• Unified systems of centers - resettlement nodes.